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How to Get a Blurry Background in Your Photos

I’ve been teaching some workshops for people who are pretty new to photography. It’s been awesome getting back to basics and trying to figure out how to explain things in terms that a newbie can understand. And I love seeing people’s passion for their new hobby, and curiosity as to how to achieve certain looks.

This is a new series of posts discussing various photography techniques. Some of them will be fairly basic, like this one, and some will be more complex. I’m going to try to discuss them using language that anyone can understand and focus more on technique than theory. Photography experts: avert your eyes.

How to Get a Blurry Background

I remember when I was just starting out and I posted a session with the photos below. Someone, who was attending photography school, e-mailed me and asked how I got that blurry background. I was a bit shocked that someone studying photography would ask me, since I felt like a total newbie at the time. But I can understand why someone would ask this question, because the blurred background isn’t something you can easily achieve with a point-and-shoot or phone camera. It seems like it requires either expensive equipment or special knowledge. It doesn’t. Ok, maybe a little bit of knowledge, which is what this post is for. And a DSLR or camera with manual controls is helpful too.

how to get a blurry background
Canon 5D, 50mm f1.8, at f/1.8, 1/200 sec, ISO 100
shallow depth of field example
Canon 5D, 50mm f1.8, at f/1.8, 1/320 sec, ISO 100

The above photos were taken with the Canon 50mm f1.8 lens, which is currently $112 on Amazon.ca. I highly recommend that new photographers get this lens if they’re interested in shooting portraits. I believe the Nikon equivalent is the AF-S version, which is $260 on Amazon. There’s a cheaper version for $130, but it only works in manual focus with most inexpensive Nikon DSLRs. So, for $250 or less, you can take the photos above. I did use the Canon 5D body, which is a pro body, but it’s also really old (circa 2005). You can probably pick a used one up for about $500.

Note: in order to use the below techniques, you may need to select your focal point manually, otherwise the camera may choose to focus on the background rather than your subject. I suggest using a single focal point and positioning it over your subject. Check your manual for how to do this or Google your camera model and “how to change focal point”.

There are two main things that affect the blurriness of the background. These are depth of field and lens compression.

Depth of Field

Usually when people talk about how blurry or sharp the background is, they’re talking about the depth of field. The above images have a shallow depth of field. A deep depth of field would have the trees/grass in the background in focus, or at least more in focus.

What affects depth of field?

1. Aperture

This is the thing that most people focus on when trying to achieve shallow depth of field, and it’s probably the easiest to implement and understand. I think I shot the entire above session on f1.8, because I knew that a low aperture would give me that cool blurry background effect.

With all other factors remaining the same, a wider/lower aperture will give you less depth of field (i.e. more blur) and a higher aperture will give you more depth of field. That’s why the 50mm 1.8 is great, because its lowest aperture is f1.8. For most kit lenses (that come with the camera), the lowest aperture is f3.5 (and f5.6 when zoomed in).

Hint: if you look at your lens, it will have the focal length and lowest aperture marked on it (ex: 50mm 1:1.8 or 18-55mm 1:3.5-5.6 – the latter meaning the lowest aperture is 3.5 at 18mm zoom and 5.6 at 55mm zoom).

Below is an animated GIF that shows the same camera/lens in the same position, with only the aperture changing (and shutter speed/ISO to keep the exposure the same). I kept my focus point on the front figure for all of the photos. See the difference between f1.8 and f4? And f4 and f8? You can even see the depth of field changing in the grain of the table. It’s a distinct line on the 1.8 image and spreads to include the entire table.

Therefore, to make your background blurrier, use a lower aperture.

aperture gif

2. Distance between Camera & Subject and Subject & Background

In the below example, the aperture is fairly low (f2.8) on a 50mm lens. The couple is in the same position and their distance to the background is always the same, but I moved closer to them in the second photo. Notice how much more blurry the background looks?

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50mm f1.8, at f/2.8, 1/200 sec, ISO 5000 (only my distance from the subjects changed)

The closer you are to your subject, the smaller the depth of field. This means that you should be careful when shooting portraits very close to your subject with a wide aperture. Focus on the eye that’s closest to the camera, because one of the eyes may go out of focus. If you just try to get your focal point anywhere on their face, you may end up with just their nose in focus.

Below is an example of a photo taken very close to my subject. I focused on the flower hanging from the shoulder of her dress. Notice how the focus starts to drop off right away behind the focal point? If I’d been standing five feet away instead of right next to her, her entire body would be more or less in focus, like in the above examples

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35mm 1.4, at f/2.0, 1/320 sec, ISO 1000

In the below example, the aperture is again f2.8 on a 50mm lens. The couple is in the same position, but I rotated my position slightly, causing the background to be closer to them, and moved myself farther from the subjects. The closer the subjects are to the background, the sharper the background will be (if all other settings are the same). The depth of field stays the same, but the background moves into the sharp area.

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50mm f1.8, at f/2.8, 1/500 sec, ISO 1000 (my distance from the subjects and their distance from the background changed)

Therefore, if you want the background to be blurry, move the camera closer to the subjects and/or the subjects farther from the background.

3. Sensor Type

If you’re just learning photography with a DSLR, chances are you have a crop-sensor camera. Pro-level cameras are usually full-frame. A crop-sensor effectively multiplies focal length by the crop factor (usually 1.4 or 1.6), so a 50mm lens becomes 70mm or 80mm instead. It doesn’t behave exactly like a 70-80mm lens though.  It’s a bit too complicated for me to go into here, but generally the same lens on a full frame camera will have shallower depth-of-field than on a crop-sensor, therefore a blurrier background.

I don’t have a crop-sensor camera to take some comparison shots for you, so here’s a great article with examples from Neil van Niekerk.

Lens Compression

Lens compression is similar to depth of field in effect, but it’s caused by different things. It’s seen when you use a different focal length.

We’ve discussed focal length a bit. On a 50mm lens, the focal length is 50mm. On the typical 18-55mm kit lens, the focal length zooms from 18mm to 55mm. With distance to subject and settings remaining the same, the background will be blurrier with a longer focal length. This is primarily due to lens compression.

Here’s an example where I tried to kept the camera the same distance from the subject and the aperture at f2.8, but changed from a 35mm to 50mm lens. I cropped the below image down to show about the same area (of course, the 35mm originally captured a larger area). You can see that the background is blurrier with the 50mm lens and the lens also compresses the background towards the subject (makes it seem closer) while the 35mm lens brings more of the edges in. There’s more to be said about compression, but for this lesson, we’ll just say that longer lenses will cause your background to be blurrier if all other settings remain the same.

35to50

Summary

In summary, to get a blurrier background, you can try the following:

  1. Use a lower aperture (smaller f-stop number, like 1.4 vs. 5.6)
  2. Move the camera closer to the subjects
  3. Move the subjects farther from the background
  4. Use a full frame camera vs. a crop sensor camera
  5. Use a longer lens or focal length (i.e. 85mm vs 35mm) – zoom in

Resources for New Photographers

I teach beginner’s photography workshops in Victoria, BC and I wanted to make a list of resources for my students and other photography enthusiasts at various levels. I’ll add to this list as I discover new resources. Let me know your favourites in the comments.

Books

Understanding Exposure: How to Shoot Great Photographs with Any Camera was a great book when I was first learning photography. It’s very easy to understand and breaks down the elements of exposure clearly and in detail. I’m sure Bryan Peterson’s other books are great as well.

Picture Perfect Practice is an excellent book for learning composition techniques and getting into the habit of breaking them down and practicing them. It also has some sections on posing, though I hear his book Picture Perfect Posing is even better for that. I’ve only read part of it so far, but have heard great things about it from other pro photographers. This book is great for both beginners, seasoned pros, and anyone in between.

On-Camera Flash and Off-Camera Flash by Neil Van Niekerk for flash techniques. He also has a useful blog.

Videos

CreativeLive has free photography, and other (design, business, crafting), workshops that are useful for all levels of photographers. You can buy the courses after they air to have on demand access. They can contain a bit too much fluff for experienced photographers, due to audience questions, but are really great for newer photographers. Fave teachers: Susan Stripling for weddings (Creative Wedding Photography or 30 Days of Wedding Photography), Kirsten Lewis for documentary family photography, Roberto Valenzuela for posing and portraits, Sue Bryce for posing and business, Tamara Lackey for family/children’s portraits and business, Zack Arias for flash.

I haven’t tried it, but a lot of people recommend Lynda.com for tutorials on photo editing. Many libraries include free access to this site. You can also find a lot of great photography and editing tutorials on YouTube. Here’s a list of some great YouTube photography tutorial channels.

Blogs

Photography Concentrate has a ton of great articles for photographers of various levels, but is especially helpful to newer photographers. They have some excellent ebooks for purchase, but the blog is a source of a lot of helpful and free information.

Digital Photography School has a ton of useful articles on various types of photography. There’s so much information here, I suggest using the search function.

If you run or are considering starting a photography business, The Modern Tog has a lot of great information on marketing, pricing, and running a business.

You can also follow my blog for photography tips. I’ll be posting more in the coming months. Let  me know if there are any topics you’d like me to cover.

Note: some of the links above are affiliate links, but I have personally used all of the above resources unless otherwise noted.

Why You Should Learn to Use Your Camera

Why should you take a photography course, read an instructional book, or figure out how to use your camera beyond pointing and shooting? Cameras are so smart these days. You can get great photos with a basic DSLR in auto mode, right? You don’t even have to know anything about photography.

My beginners’ classes are full of people who want to learn more about their cameras, who want to improve their photos, and who are frustrated with the results from shooting in auto. It doesn’t take much time to learn how to dramatically improve your photos by taking back control from the camera’s automatic settings. Beyond that, it’s all about practice.

Have you ever experienced any of the following situations?

The Accidental Silhouette

learnphotography01

What’s the problem? When your subjects are in front of a bright background, like the sky or ocean, the camera tends to underexpose the image (i.e. make it too dark) and your subjects become silhouettes. The camera tries to make the entire frame average out to a medium gray. You need to expose for your subjects and not the entire scene.

You can fix this with: manual exposure or exposure compensation; spot metering

Weird Colour Casts (aka incorrect white balance)

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What’s the problem? The camera, using auto white balance settings, is misreading the colours in the scene and chose an incorrect colour temperature. White balance is used to remove colour casts from your images and try to present them as the eye sees them.

You can fix this with: learning how to change your white balance in camera and/or shooting in RAW and correcting later

Too Much or Too Little Motion Blur

learnphotography03

What’s the problem? You wanted to show motion, as above, but the camera froze the subject. Or more commonly, you wanted to freeze the motion, but the subject was blurry instead. This is a problem with shutter speed. The image on the left has a shutter speed of 1/640 and the one on the right is 1/100.

You can fix this with: learning how shutter speed works (basically, a slower shutter speed shows more motion blur)

Focus on the Wrong Subject

learnphotography04

What’s the problem? You want to focus on a subject other than what the camera wants to focus on. Cameras with face detection might focus on the wrong person and cameras without might focus on something else entirely.

You can fix this with: using a single focal point and moving it onto your subject

Too Much is in Focus

learnphotography05

What’s the problem? You wanted the background to be blurry, but your camera got everything in focus instead. For the above images, I used a 35mm lens at f4 for the image on the left and f1.6 for the image on the right.

You can fix this with: learning about depth of field (aperture, distance, lens choice)

Want to learn how to fix these problems and more?

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